Water temperature in the Catalina Channel

There are 14 years of publicly available data on the surface water temperature in the Catalina (a.k.a. San Pedro) Channel – via NOAA and CDIP. Unfortunately, that’s all it is – data. No summary statistics, no long-term charts – nothing particularly useful if you’re just looking for a simple, big-picture view of trends and cycles in sea temperature (perhaps to inform your upcoming swim across the channel).

So I decided to make one myself:

Catalina Channel water temperature, 1998-2012

NOAA buoys take readings every 30 minutes. Over 14 years, that works out to almost 239,000 observations. Don’t try this on an old computer! For a smoother line, I calculated a weekly average. Same data – just prettier.

If you really need more detail, I also made an interactive chart with daily-level resolution (5,044 observations). Keep in mind, Javascript is required to view the chart, and it probably won’t look good on mobile devices. If you’ve ever used Google Finance to view stock prices, the chart format will look familiar.

Summary Statistics by Day of Year

Sea temperature varies by season, but there are also year-to-year variations. In 2010, for example, the Catalina Channel was unusually cool (even in summer). In 2006 it was unusually warm. Perhaps you’ve wondered: What is the typical water temperature on a given day of the year? If your swim is scheduled for August 15, what is the average water temperature on August 15, averaged across all years?

To answer that question, I made this chart (click to enlarge):

Most Catalina swims take place in summer and early fall (not winter or spring), so here’s a zoomed version of the same data, for the swim season only:

So, water temps in the Catalina Channel tend to peak around August 1, and remain more or less steady through the first week of September. But even in early June and late October, the water is still “warm” by English Channel standards.

Note: It’s important to remember that surface water temps in Southern California tend to drop a few degrees as one approaches the coast, due to upwelling from the steeply sloping ocean bottom. My understanding is that this tends to happen about 3 miles from shore. So, if the buoy reading (6.5 miles offshore) is 63 degrees, the actual surface temp might actually be sub-60 during the last part of your swim.

Promontory Point: A marathon swimming landmark

Where are the sacred waters of American marathon swimming – the most historically significant swim spots? Aquatic Park (San Francisco), Brighton Beach (New York City), and La Jolla Cove come to mind.

But there’s another location – arguably as significant as those three – that remains remarkably below the radar. Promontory Point in Chicago. The Point was the primary training location of four Marathon Swimming Hall of Famers, including two Mount Rushmore-types:

  • Ted Erikson – First person to swim across Lake Michigan (1961). One of only two to swim from the Farallon Islands to San Francisco (and record-holder since 1967). Former record-holder for two-way English Channel swim (1965-1975).
  • Jon Erikson – First three-way English Channel swim (1981). Former record-holder for two-way English Channel (1975-1987) and youngest one-way (14 years old in 1969). 31 professional marathon swim races.
  • Dennis Matuch – one of whose swim exploits I described here.
  • Conrad Wennerberg – coach and training partner of the above three, and author of Wind, Waves, and Sunburn.

More recently, I trained at the Point for my big 2011 season – often with Amanda, a two-time MIMSer.

Promontory Point

The Point was constructed from landfill and opened as a public park in 1937. With Hyde Park and the University of Chicago nearby, it soon became a popular swim spot. Marathon swimmers have trained there at least since the early 1960s. As Ted Erikson explains (via personal communication):

In prepping for the 1961 Lake Michigan Swim to Michigan City, I began swimming off the rocks from Jackson Park Harbor entrance to 67th St. Beach (1/2 mile course) late fall and early 1961.

Conrad Wennerberg, who I met at 67th, suggested the Point, where I occasionally swam to from 67th. The Point seemed more social.  So, I started off and on in 1961 and continuously from 1962 to present.

Similar to today, the Point Swimmers of the ’60s swam “laps” between the southeast edge of the Point and the 59th Street Pier (a 1-mile round-trip). Ted recalls:

Dennis and I would push each other for 1-10 mile training swims.  Most interesting were 1-milers with slow swimmers starting early and fast swimmers starting late such that ALL would reach the final buoy about 100 yards from finish at the same time. This made a nice race to finish for all which included Connie, Bill Tregay, Tom Lisco, Mike Paesler, Jon, and others, some who “handicapped their time” obviously beat us because of “saving” themselves for the sprint.

Was great fun, competition, and good training. Once Dennis found a foot at the finish, and holding it up, breathing heavily from the sprint, said “Who lost their foot ?”… (foot was from a passenger on a United Airlines plane that crashed off the Point a week so before).

Despite this rich history, the Point keeps a low profile even in Chicago – and even among swimmers. The city’s enthusiastic triathlete population primarily trains downtown at Ohio Street Beach, the site of Big Shoulders. (One might argue, this is a good thing.)

One reason is the Point’s relative isolation, 7 miles south of downtown. Another reason: Until recently it was technically illegal to swim off the Point. A few swimmers, including Ted, were even arrested in the late 1980s. But Ted and others held their ground and, through the power of community organizing (a Hyde Park specialty), pressured the Chicago Park District to create a designated “long distance swimming area” offshore from 57th Street Beach.

The politics of the Point makes for fascinating reading. For more, see this 2001 article from the Tribune.

And finally, like its peers in San Francisco, New York, and La Jolla, swimming at the Point is a year-round activity. Point swimmer and journalist Elizabeth Brackett recently filed this story:

Related Links

First-time channel swimmer? Consider Anacapa Island

For the most up-to-date information about Anacapa Island swims, please see the new dedicated Anacapa Island page at the Santa Barbara Channel Swimming Association website.

A channel crossing is a special kind of marathon swim. From one piece of land, you swim to another, non-contiguous piece of land, with nothing but water separating the two. Unlike a lake or bay crossing, there are no shortcuts – you can’t fudge the distance by adjusting where you start and finish. Unlike a river swim, there’s no consistent current to speed you along. Indeed, the only way out is getting on the boat.

For Americans, the most commonly attempted channel swim is the Catalina (a.k.a. San Pedro) Channel. The second most-attempted channel by Americans is, I would imagine, the English Channel. These are both substantial swims – over 20 miles each. So the question arises: How do you build up to them? One approach is to do a swim of similar distance, but in a more controlled setting – e.g., Tampa Bay or MIMS.

But there’s another, overlooked option for building up to a major channel swim: Do a real, full-fledged channel swim – but a shorter one. And guess what? There’s one such swim, right here in Southern California: Anacapa Island.

Anacapa channel swim
Anacapa Island to Port Hueneme, California

Anacapa Island comprises three narrow volcanic islets, 12 miles or so off the coast of Southern California. One of eight members of the Channel Islands (another of which is Catalina), Anacapa is also part of Channel Islands National Park. Compared to its neighbor, Catalina, Anacapa is relatively untouched by swimmers – only 25 successful swims since 1978.

The 12.4-mile (20 km) swim, from East Anacapa to Silver Strand Beach near Port Hueneme – has many desirable qualities for marathon swimmers.

  • It offers similar challenges as Catalina – open-ocean conditions, low-to-mid 60s water temperature – but at only 60% of the distance.
  • Like Catalina, swimmers have the support and backing of an official, legitimate marathon swimming organization – the Santa Barbara Channel Swimming Association.
  • Like Catalina, swimmers have access to a boat pilot with extensive experience escorting swimmers – the Tuna Thumper, captained by Bob Andrieux. Captain Bob has a 100% success rate: He’s never had a swimmer enter the water who failed to finish. A remarkable achievement in this business.
  • Like Catalina, swimmers will share the water with all matter of interesting marine life – for better (dolphins, porpoises, and whales) and for worse (the occasional jellyfish).
  • Unlike Catalina, a swim from Anacapa occurs during daylight hours, which some may find less psychologically intimidating.
  • Before and after your swim, you’re well-positioned to enjoy either Santa Barbara (a 30-minute drive north) or Los Angeles (a 1-hour drive south).

Being 60 miles further up the coast than Catalina, Anacapa has slightly cooler waters – perhaps 1-2 degrees Fahrenheit on average. The following chart shows the average, minimum, and maximum daily sea temperature for each day of the year, using all available data from the relevant NOAA buoy (2002-2011).

anacapa passage average sea temperature
Daily sea temperature: Average (black), maximum (red), & minimum (blue): 2002-2011. Data from NOAA buoy 46217. Chart by yours truly. Click to enlarge.

Swim Overview

(The following section is adapted, with permission, from a document authored by 2011 Anacapa soloist Dave Van Mouwerik.)

Anacapa Island topo map
Swim start at top right

The swim begins at a sheer cliff on the eastern edge of East Anacapa, near a lighthouse and distinctive formation known as “Arch Rock.” While the escort boat idles 50-60 yards offshore, the swimmer enters the water and approaches the cliff. The swimmer places his/her hand on the cliff, and at the observer’s signal, the swim begins.

Anacapa Island arch rock and lighthouse
Anacapa Island: lighthouse & arch rock. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Swimmers typically commence their journey just after sunrise, which casts Anacapa’s crags in a spooky, otherworldly light – as seen here:

Lynn Kubasek Anacapa swim start
2011 Anacapa soloist Lynn Kubasek enters the water. Image courtesy of Rob Aquatics (www.robaquatics.com)

Of the 25 successful Anacapa solo swims, the shortest was Nick Caine’s 5:03 in 2008; the longest was Jim Neitz’s 10:43 in 2011. With the length of day approaching 14 hours in the height of summer (plus an additional hour of visible light), even the most plodding of swimmers should be able to finish with light in the sky.

Four statute miles from the finish, you swim past an oil rig named Gina:

Gina the oil rig. Photo courtesy of Rob Aquatics (www.robaquatics.com)

The swim finishes at Silver Strand Beach, which separates the entrances to Channel Islands Harbor (to the northwest) and Port Hueneme Harbor (to the southeast):

Anacapa channel swim finish
Satellite image of Silver Strand Beach. Courtesy of Dave Van Mouwerik

In contrast to the sheer cliff start, the Anacapa swim ends on a soft, sandy beach. Typically, there isn’t much surf to contend with – but if you do have to bodysurf, at least you won’t faceplant on a bed of rocks. After clearing the water, the swimmer returns to the boat for a brief ride back to Ventura Harbor (where the Tuna Thumper docks).

2011 Anacapa soloist Lynn Kubasek finishing at Silver Strand Beach. Photo courtesy of Rob Aquatics (www.robaquatics.com).

Anacapa Swim Narratives

  • And, a narrated slideshow by Dave Van Mouwerik:

How to Sign Up for an Anacapa Island Swim

  • Book a date with an escort boat. The most frequently used boat for Anacapa swims is the Tuna Thumper, operated by Capt. Bob Andrieux (805-535-8519, salineenterprises@yahoo.com)
  • Join the SBCSA (annual or lifetime) and notify us of your upcoming attempt.
  • Follow the steps described on this page.
  • Feel free to contact the SBCSA leadership with any questions or concerns. Scott Zornig (board president) can be reached at [szornig at aol dot com]. I am also a SBCSA board member and can be reached by leaving a comment on this website.

Letters from Connie: There Is No Perfect Stroke

Conrad Wennerberg is Chairman Emeritus of the International Marathon Swimming Hall of Fame and author of the authoritative history of marathon swimming: Wind, Waves, and Sunburn. Originally published in 1974, the book was re-printed in 1999, and is now out of print once again. (Used copies are available through Amazon.)

Wind, Waves, and Sunburn

Conrad (or “Connie,” as he’s known to friends) is a familiar face at Promontory Point in Chicago, my preferred training location in 2010-11. Now in his 80s, Connie still takes his noontime dip in Lake Michigan, May through October. Connie is also responsible for rescuing a treasured thermos of mine, which his friend Frank the Klepto had stolen during a late-season training swim. True story.

I’m just now getting around to reading Wind, Waves, and Sunburn, and it’s delightful. More than anything else I’ve read, it captures the spirit of marathon swimming – and this power is undimmed by the passing of 37 years. For some perspective: in 1974, the records for the fastest crossings of the English and Catalina Channels were both held by Lynne Cox.

1962 Lake Michigan marathon swimIn an early chapter, Connie recounts the classic “36 3/4 to 50 mile” Lake Michigan race in 1962. This race was actually two races in one. First, a 36 3/4-mile swim from Chicago to Waukegan, Illinois – an attempt to break Ted Erikson’s record of 35 hours for the same distance the previous year (Chicago to Michigan City, Indiana). The first swimmer to reach Waukegan could choose to exit the water and collect $4,000. Or, swimmers could choose to keep going past Waukegan, all the way to Kenosha, Wisconsin – a distance of 50 miles and a new world record for distance. The first swimmer to reach Kenosha would win $10,000.

Of the 20 or so swimmers who dove into Lake Michigan that day, only three would finish: Ted Erikson, Greta Andersen, and Dennis Matuch. All three would subsequently be enshrined in the marathon swimming hall of fame. In Connie’s eyes, the story of their epic race is more than a story: It’s an allegory. He describes their respective stroke techniques:

Ted Erikson was “poetry in motion”–the classic stroke with hardly a millimeter variation between either arm as it entered the water. His legs beat in a steady, even throb that impressed the observer. His powerful arms carried him through the water at a speed of close to two miles per hour. Here was the man to watch. His forty-eight strokes per minute would prevent his burning out.

Moving on to Dennis Matuch, a local lifeguard with a decidedly different approach to swimming:

His arms worked in what seemed like frenzied action. Eighty-five strokes per minute…. Extremely short, his high stroke rate prevented any smooth entry of his hands and arms into the water. Consequently there was a splash upon entry into the water and corresponding flurry of water upon recovery. The average spectator would also have been amazed at the total non-use of his legs. They simply dragged along behind him…. Spectators scratched their heads and said, “This man will drown shortly.”

And finally, Greta Andersen, the greatest female marathon swimmer of her era:

What one would have observed would have been an extremely uneven stroke. As Greta turned her head to the right to breathe, her left arm reached only a little more than half the distance ahead as the right arm. One would have been tempted to say, “What a cock-eyed stroke.” It was very uneven and looked quite uncomfortable to the swimmer.

Based on these observations, Connie concludes:

Ted Erikson would win this race. Greta Andersen, if she were lucky, would go half way. Dennis Matuch would drown in about another ten minutes. Self-satisfied, the general observer would sit back and await the “sure” and inevitable outcome.

Conrad Wennerberg
Conrad Wennerberg at Promontory Point

So, what actually happened?

  • Dennis Matuch swam 36 3/4 miles to Waukegan in 21 hours, earning a new world record and $4,000.
  • Greta Andersen, five minutes behind Matuch, continued on to Kenosha, finishing in 31 hours — a new world record for distance, earning the top prize of $10,000.
  • Ted Erikson, three hours behind Andersen at Waukegan, also kept going. By the time he reached Kenosha he was five hours behind. In reward for 36 hours of swimming, he received nothing but a metaphorical pat on the back.

The chapter concludes with a statement as true today as it was in 1974:

The moral to be learned from the above is that one should never stress the importance of “evenness” and proportion that characterizes the classic swimming stroke. The individual variations in human anatomy and physiology preclude warping an individual’s personal adaptation to the water into the closed channel of “water ballet” perfectionism.

Hear, hear!

And Connie, if you read this, please give my regards to Frank the Klepto.

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Do it yourself

The last in a series of four posts about nutrition in marathon swimming. To recap:

  • Marathon swimming nutrition is both art and science. There are both “best practices” (generalizable to many) and “special sauce” (generalizable to few). In general, a nutrition plan that aims to drink some carbs — not too much is a good place to start.
  • Some carbohydrates are “better” than others, due to differences in osmolality. An endurance athlete can consume more carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin, compared to simple sugars, without overwhelming the digestive system. Also, maltodextrin is neutral in taste, thus providing more control over your drink’s flavor.
  • Of the many designer endurance fuels on the market, few are ideal for marathon swimming. High electrolyte content makes sense for runners, cyclists, and triathletes – but less sense for swimmers (even less sense for ocean swimmers).

Although I do think Perpetuem is a good product for swimmers, my best advice is to skip the one-size-fits all formulas and do it yourself. This is the only way to ensure you get the nutrition you need on a marathon swim, and not the stuff you don’t need.

There are two basic varieties of “DIY,” the “full DIY” and the “semi DIY.”

The Full DIY

  1. bulk maltodextrinBuy some plain complex carbohydrate – maltodextrin (Carbo-ProMaxim, or bulk) or if you want to be adventurous, Superstarch.
  2. Mix your chosen carb with water, and flavor it with something tasty. Possibilities might include fruit juice or Gatorade.
  3. Calculate your drink recipe by:
    1. how many calories (including the ones in your flavoring) you want to consume per hour
    2. how much fluid you want to consume per hour
  4. If you’ll be swimming in warm water and/or freshwater, add some electrolytes (e.g., Hammer Endurolytes). Keep in mind many fruit juices already provide some potassium.
  5. If you want to add some amino acids, go for it (try this).

This is, in fact, exactly what I do. For a 30-oz feed bottle, I mix:

  • 1/2 cup maltodextrin (bulk for everyday use; Carbo-Pro or Maxim for race day)
  • 6 oz fruit juice – anything but citrus. On my big swims last year I used unfiltered apple juice. But other juices work great too – cranberry (unsweetened), blueberry, cherry, pomegranate, grape, etc. You can even blend them!
  • 24 oz water

This recipe provides approximately 280 calories and 70g carbohydrates (depending on the juice). Assuming bulk maltodextrin ($33.54 per 12 lbs) and premium juice ($4 per quart), the total cost of my 30-oz custom bottle comes to $1.06. For everyday workouts, I dilute the recipe by 50%, bringing my cost down to 53 cents.

Important Caveat: Some people have trouble digesting fructose. Fruit juice contains fructose (along with glucose & some other stuff).

Always test your feed plan before you use it on a marathon swim!

The nutrition info for Maxim and Carbo-Pro are pretty boring, but here they are anyway:

Maxim Energy Mix

Maxim Energy Mix

  • carb source: maltodextrin only
  • extras: Vitamins C and B1
  • cost per 250ml: $0.32

Carbo Pro

Carbo Pro

  • carb source: maltodextrin only
  • extras: none
  • cost per 250ml: $0.45

The Semi DIY

  1. Infinit NutritionGo to the Infinit Nutrition website.
  2. Complete the online interview (or schedule a phone consultation).
  3. Get your customized formula. Infinit will blend it, put it in a nice little bag, and mail it to you.

Everything is adjustable – flavor, calories, electrolytes, protein, amino acids, and even caffeine. Tell them what you want, and that’s what you’ll get. You could even have different formulas for different swims – perhaps a low-electrolyte formula for a cold ocean swim, and a medium-electrolyte formula for a warm lake swim.

(No, I’m not getting anything for saying this. However, my buddy Jared – who initially brought Infinit to my attention – is sponsored by them.)

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: A product comparison

I hope you’ve enjoyed “Nutrition Week” here at Freshwater Swimmer. As you may have noticed, I’ve been vague about recommending specific products. There’s a reason for that: I don’t believe there’s any single best nutrition plan for all people, in all situations. However, I’ve personally tried a number of sports drink products, and will share my thoughts on them.

Beginning with the low-end market… These products include, but are not limited to: Gatorade, Powerade, and Vitamin Water. Some signs you might be buying one of these products:

  • You can buy it in supermarkets and gas stations
  • It is brightly colored
  • Produced by a subsidiary of a Fortune 500 company, such as Coca-Cola or PepsiCo
  • Advertised on national television and/or billboards
  • Has a flashy, Javascript-heavy website that contains very little actual information.
  • Ingredients lists may be difficult to find. When you do find one, it’s often extensive and includes strange additives like “xanthan gum” and “brominated vegetable oil.”
  • Most relevant to endurance athletes: The primary carbohydrate source is a simple sugar such as sucrose, dextrose, or high-fructose corn syrup (or a combination).


Vitamin Water

Please note: This isn’t an argument about the “morality” of simple sugars. From an exercise perspective, it all ends up as glucose anyway. The issue is osmolality. Because maltodextrin is a larger molecule, it’s easier to consume more carbs without your stomach treating it like food, flooding with water, and causing gastric distress. This might not matter in an everyday workout, but in an 8+ hour swim, it matters.

It’s also easier to control the flavor of a maltodextrin-based drink. By itself, it’s almost tasteless. If you like a sweet, strong-flavored drink, you can always add fructose, fruit juice, or even Gatorade. With simple sugars, the only way to control the flavor is by watering it down – and thus consuming fewer calories.

Continue reading “Marathon Swimming Nutrition: A product comparison”

Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Osmolality and why it matters

On a sunny late morning in Chicago last summer, I told Ted Erikson about the nutrition plan I’d recently used for Tampa and MIMS. Ted EriksonMy plan called for an hourly cycle of two Maxim feeds and one Perpetuem feed. Ted sort of chuckled, and then said something I’ll never forget: “You know, Evan… all you really need is glucose.”

And he’s right: Glucose is the basic unit of energy. Whether you feed on Gatorade or Maxim, it all ends up as glucose anyway. I mention this story because it’s worth remembering as you read what follows. When I said in the previous post that “some carbs are better than others,” I don’t mean that maltodextrin is the be-all-end-all, magical elixir of marathon swimming. It’s not. Many swimmers – including some of the best – have used “simple sugars” to fuel a marathon swim. You can, too!

However, it’s my view (based on both research and experience) that the basic recommendation to an aspiring marathon swimmer – in the absence of strong preferences otherwise – should be a maltodextrin-based fuel. 

One reason is taste – simple sugars are much sweeter than maltodextrin. The neutral-to-slightly sweet flavor of maltodextrin provides much greater control over the final taste of your beverage. However, this is (quite literally) “a matter of taste” and not generalizable. 

Another reason is a bit more obscure. It has to do with how carbohydrates are metabolized in your gut. One important difference between maltodextrin-based sports drinks and sucrose/HFCS-based drinks is their osmolality. I could attempt to explain what this means, but I thought it’d be more fun to get someone who actually knows what he’s talking about.

Brandon SullivanSo, allow me to introduce Brandon Sullivan. Sully is a former teammate of mine on the Columbus Sharks Masters. He is also a certified marathon swimmer, having completed the 2010 USMS 10K Championship in Noblesville. More relevantly, he has a PhD in Biochemistry from (the) Ohio State University!

Sully has generously agreed to explain what osmolality is, and why it matters to endurance athletes. Thanks dude!

* For the record, Ted Erikson’s nutrition plan for his legendary 1967 Farallon Islands swim consisted of “glucose plus anything to flavor and pour, e.g. peaches, pea soup, etc.”

Continue reading “Marathon Swimming Nutrition: Osmolality and why it matters”